Nelles, William. “Getting Focalization into Focus.” Poetics Today. 11.2 (1990): 365-382. Web. June 27, 2001.

“The concept of focalization stems from Genette’s interest in separating two elements of what used to be called point of view: the difference, as he put it, “between the question who sees? and the question who speaks?” (Genette 1980: 186; 1972: 203). His interest was in describing two aspects of narrating, not two agents, but his implicit postulation of an agent who sees, together with the unfortunate choice of a visual metaphor, has been the source of most of the mis-spilled ink.”

The quote differentiates focalization from point of view and essentially defines it as “who sees” and “who speaks,” which I find key to better understanding any given text. It allows readers to gain a deeper understanding when they delve into the story while asking these questions.

Bal, Mieke. “The Point of Narratology.” Poetics Today. 11.4 (1990): 727-753. Print.

“I will present three cases based on my own work of the past ten years to see if this use of narratology is indeed sensible. My contention in this paper-or my desire, one could argue then, is that Narratology, ten years after Synopsis 2, is flourishing, but less within the study of narrative texts than in other disciplines and that this is as it must be, as far as I am concerned.”

The author states the importance of narratology and the need for its relevance.

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